What Is The TCP IP Model? An Important Guide In 3 Points


TCP IP Model encourages you to decide how a particular PC ought to be connected with the web and how the data ought to be sent between them. It encourages you to make a virtual network when numerous PC networks are conjunctive.

The motivation behind the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol model is to permit communication over enormous distances.

  1. List of layer protocols
  2. TCP/IP Protocol Architecture
  3. How TCP/IP Work?

1. List of layer protocols

  • TCP/IP layers are:
  1. Application Layer
  2. Transport Layer
  3. Internet Layer
  4. Network Access Layer
  • TCP IP Model Diagram:
Application Layer
Transport Layer
Internet Layer
Network Access Layer

2. TCP/IP Protocol Architecture

TCP/IP layers TCP/IP Protocol
Application Layer SNMP, SMTP, POP3, FTP, HTTP
Transport Layer TCP, UDP
Internet Layer ICMP, IP
Network Access Layer ARP, Ethernet
  • Application Layer:

The TCP/IP application layer communicates with an application layer, which is the most elevated level of the Open System Interconnection model. The application layer is the Open System Interconnection layer, which is nearest to the end-user. It implies the Open System Interconnection application layer permits clients to associates with another software application. 

The application of the TCP IP model associates with software applications to actualize a communicating part. The application program’s understanding of information is consistently outside the extent of the Open System Interconnection model.

A portion of the application layer protocols present in this layer are:

  1. LPD
  2. X Window
  3. NFS
  4. DHCP
  5. DNS
  6. NTP
  7. SNMP
  8. SMTP
  9. SSH
  10. Telnet
  11. TFTP
  12. FTP
  13. HTTPS
  14. HTTP
  • Transport Layer:

It chooses if data transmission ought to be in a single path or a parallel path. The transport layer additionally manages the packets to be sent in succession. The transport layer in the TCP IP model breaks the message into little units to take care of all the more proficiently by the network layer. The transport layer adds header information to the data. The applications can peruse and keep in touch with the transport layer. For example, functions such as splitting, segmenting, or multiplexing of the data are finished by the transport layer. 

A portion of the transport layer protocols present in this layer are:

  1. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  2. User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
  • Internet Layer:

An internet layer is a layer of the TCP IP model. It is otherwise called a network layer.

The Internet layer TCP IP model offers the procedural and functional technique for moving variable-length data successions starting with one hub then onto the next with different networks’ assistance. 

Message delivery at the network layer doesn’t give any guaranteed to be a strong network layer of the TCP/IP protocol.

A portion of the internet layer protocols present in this layer are:

  1. Internet Control Message Protocol
  2. Internet Protocol
  • Network Access Layer:

Network Access Layer is the 4th layer of the TCP IP model. This layer is likewise called a Network Interface Layer. It causes you to identifies details of how the data ought to be sent utilizing the network. 

It likewise incorporates how bits ought to optically be motioned by hardware devices that straightforwardly interface with a network medium, as twisted-pair, fibre, coaxial, or optical cables.

A network layer is a mix of the data line and described in the article of the Open System Interconnection reference model.

A portion of the network access layer protocols present in this layer are:

  1. ARP
  2. Ethernet

A protocol is a bunch of rules that direct and tells how frameworks ought to convey. A TCP/IP protocol suite is an assortment of protocols that are intended to cooperate. The TCP/IP protocol suite that has just a single protocol is known as a solitary stack protocol.

3. How TCP/IP Work? 

TCP IP model breaks messages into packets to evade having to resend the whole message on the off chance that it experiences an issue during transmission. Packets are reassembled once they arrive at their destination. Each packet can take an alternate course between the destination and the source PC, contingent upon whether the first course utilized gets unavailable or congested.

  • Advantages of the TCP IP model:
  1. It can be utilized to set up a connection between two PCs.
  2. Supports a few routing protocols.
  3. Client/server architecture. 
  4. It is versatile.
  5. It operated freely.
  • Disadvantages of the TCP IP model:
  1. It has not unmistakably isolated its protocols, interfaces and services.
  2. Replacing protocol isn’t simple.
  3. The model can’t be utilized in some other application.
  4. In this, the transport layer doesn’t ensure the delivery of packets.

The main advantages and disadvantages of the TCP IP model are data re-transmission and loss result of congestion, respectively.


Communication is the cycle of the transference of data starting with one spot then onto the next. It is possible that it very well may be the transmission of calls starting with one device then onto the next or move of records starting with one PC then onto the next. One such standard protocol for communications between various devices is the TCP/IP protocol.

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