Neural Machine Translation: An Important Guide(2021)

Ajay Ohri


Perhaps the most punctual objective for PCs was the automatic translation of text starting with one language then onto the next.

Machine translation is maybe quite possibly the most difficult Artificial Intelligence, or AI tasks are given the smoothness of human language. Traditionally, rule-based frameworks were utilised for this task, which was replaced during the year 1990s with statistical techniques. More recently, Deep Neural Network (DNN) models accomplish state-of-the-art results in a field that is suitably named Neural Machine Translation or NMT.

In this article let us look at:

  1. What is Machine Translation?
  2. What is Statistical Machine Translation?
  3. What is Neural Machine Translation?
  4. Neural Machine Translation by Jointly Learning to Align and Translate
  5. Neural Machine Translation Software
  6. How Does Neural Machine Translation Work?
  7. Brief Explanation of NMT and the Encoder-Decoder Structure
  8. Six Challenges for Neural Machine Translation
  9. Steps for Implementing Neural Machine Translation with Attention

1. What is Machine Translation?

MT or Machine Translation is automated translation. Machine Translation is the process by which computer software is utilised to translate a text from one language (like Hindi) to another (like English).

To deal with any translation, automated or human, the significance of a text in the first (source) language should be completely re-established in the target language, for example, the translation. While on a superficial level, this appears to be clear, it is undeniably more intricate.

The translation is not simple in the replacement of the same word. A translator should analyse and interpret the entirety of the components in the text and expertise each word may impact another. This requires broad expertise in semantics, syntax, grammar, and so on in the target and source languages, just as experience with every local area.

2. What is Statistical Machine Translation?

Statistical machine translation uses statistical translation models whose parameters originate from the examination of bilingual and monolingual corpora. Building statistical translation models is a speedy interaction, but the innovation depends vigorously on existing multilingual corpora. At least two million words for a particular domain and surprisingly more for general language are needed.

Hypothetically, it is feasible to arrive at the quality limit, but most organisations don’t have such a lot of existing multilingual corpora to build the important translation models. Moreover, statistical machine statistical is a central processing unit intensive and requires a broad hardware arrangement to run translation models for normal execution levels.

3. What is Neural Machine Translation?

Neural machine translation is the utilization of neural network models to get familiar with statistical machine translation models.

The critical advantage to the methodology is that a single framework can be prepared straightforwardly on the target and source text, no longer requiring the pipeline of particular frameworks utilised in statistical machine learning.

All things considered, neural machine translation frameworks are supposed to start to finish frameworks as just one model is needed for the translation.

4. Neural Machine Translation by Jointly Learning to Align and Translate

NMT is a newly proposed way to deal with machine translation. In contrast to the customary statistical machine translation, the NMT aims to create a separate neural network that harmonises the translation execution.

5. Neural Machine Translation Software

  • Google Translate
  • Yandex.Translate
  • Microsoft Translator
  • IBM Watson Language Translator
  • Bing Translator
  • Amazon Translate
  • Google Cloud Translation API
  • Slate Desktop
  • Babylon
  • GramTrans

6. How Does Neural Machine Translation Work?

Neural Machine Translation functions like a human cerebrum by utilizing neural network models to make statistical translation models.

7. Brief Explanation of NMT and the Encoder-Decoder Structure

A definitive objective of any neural machine translation model is to take a sentence in one language as input and return that sentence converted into an alternate language as output.

Before plunging into the Encoder-Decoder structure that is a rule utilised as the algorithm, we initially should see how we defeat an enormous obstacle in any machine translation task. In particular, we need an approach to change sentences into a data format that can be inputted into a Machine Learning or ML model. We should some way convert our textual data into a numeric structure.

To do this in Machine Translation or MT, each word is changed into a One Hot Encoding vector which would then be able to be inputted into the model. A-One Hot Encoding vector is a vector with a zero at each file aside from a one at a single record comparing to that specific word. Along these lines, every word has a particular One Hot Encoding vector and consequently, we can address each word in our dataset with a numerical description.

8. Six Challenges for Neural Machine Translation

  • Beam Search
  • Word Alignment
  • Long Sentences
  • Rare Words
  • Amount of Training Data
  • Domain Mismatch

9. Steps for Implementing Neural Machine Translation with Attention

Load the data and pre-process it by eliminating special characters, spaces, etc

  • Make the Dataset
  • Make the Decoder, Attention Layer and Encoder
  • Make the Loss and Optimiser Function
  • Train the Model
  • Make Inferences


Although efficient, the Neural Machine Translation or NMT frameworks actually endure a few issues, like scaling to bigger dictionaries of words and the sluggish speed of training the models. There are the current spaces of the centre for the enormous creation of neural translation frameworks, like the Google framework.

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