What Is Database Design? A Simple Guide In 2021

Ajay Ohri


What is database design? Database Design is an assortment of cycles that encourage the maintenance, implementation, development, and designing of enterprise data management frameworks.

The appropriate database design is not difficult to keep up, cost-effective and improves data consistency in terms of disk storage space. Its originator chooses how the data components associate and what data should be put away. We will now learn about what is database design!

  1. What Is Database Design
  2. Identifying Entities
  3. Identifying Relationships
  4. Identifying Attributes
  5. Presenting Entities and Relationships: Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD)
  6. Assigning Keys
  7. What is Database Design Attribute’s Data Type
  8. Normalization

1. What Is Database Design?

This article exercise will disclose how to make a decent database design and train the premise of relational database design.

Database design is truth be told genuinely simple, but there are a couple of rules to adhere to. Normalization makes your data model adaptable and that makes working with your data a lot simpler.

A decent database design begins with a rundown of the data that you need to remember for your data set and what you need to have the option to do with the data set later on. This would all be able to be written in your language, with no SQL database design.

2. Identifying Entities

The kinds of data that are saved in the database are called ‘entities’. These elements exist in 4 sorts: locations, events, things, and people. All that you could need to place in a database find a way into one of these classes. If the data you need to incorporate doesn’t find a way into these classifications, it is likely not an entity but rather a property of an entity, an attribute.

To explain the data given in this article we’ll utilize a model. Envision that you are making a site for a shop, what sort of data do you need to manage? In a shop, you offer your items to customers. The “Customers” are people, “Products” are things, “Sale” is an event, and “Shop” is a location. These are all entities that require to be remembered for your database model.

3. Identifying Relationships

The following stage is to decide the connections between the entities and to decide the cardinality of every relationship. The relationships in the database are the association between the entities, much the same as in reality: how can one entity manage the other, how would they identify with one another? For instance, customers purchase products, products are offered to customers, a sale includes products, a sale occurs in a shop. 

The cardinality shows the amount of one side of the relationship has a place with the amount of the opposite side of the relationship. To begin with, you need to state for every relationship, the amount of one side has a place with precisely 1 on the opposite side. For instance, How many sales take place in 1 shop? How many sales belong to 1 customer? How many customers belong to 1 sale? 

You’ll get a rundown like this:

  1. Customers –> Sales
  2. Customers –> Products
  3. Products –> Customers
  4. Customers –> Shops
  5. Shops –> Customers
  6. Shops –> Products
  7. Products –> Shops
  8. Shops –> Sales
  9. Sales –> Shops
  10. Products –> Sales
  11. Sales –> Products

Cardinality exists in four types of relationships in the database:

  1. Many-To-Many
  2. Many-To-One
  3. One-To-Many
  4. One-To-One

In a database design, this is shown as:

  1. M: N
  2. M:1
  3. 1: N
  4. 1:1

Other types of relationships in DBMS are Recursive Relationships, Redundant Relationships, and Solving Many-to-Many Relationships.

4. Identifying Attributes

The data components that you need to put aside for every entity are called ‘attributes’. 

About the items that you sell, you need to know, for instance, what the cost is, the thing that the name of the producer is, and what the sort number is. About the customers, you realize their customer’s address, number, and name. About the shops, you realize the area name, the address, the code. Of the business you know when they occurred, in which shop, what items were sold, and the aggregate of the deal. Of the merchant, you realize his staff address, name, and number. What will be incorporated correctly isn’t of significance yet; it is still just about what you need to save.

  • Types of an Attribute in DBMS are:
  1. Key Attribute & Non-key Attribute
  2. Stored Attribute & Derived Attribute
  3. Single Valued Attribute & Multi-valued Attribute
  4. Simple Attribute & Composite Attribute

5. Presenting Entities and Relationships: Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD)

The ERD gives a graphical outline of the data set. There are a few styles and kinds of Entity-Relationship Diagrams. Much-utilized documentation is the ‘crowfeet’ notation, where substances are addressed as rectangles shapes and the connections between the entities are addressed as lines between the elements.

6. Assigning Keys

Database keys are:

  1. Primary Keys: A PK- Primary Keys is at least one data attribute that interestingly recognizes an entity. A key that comprises at least two attributes is known as a composite key.
  2. Foreign Key: The FK- Foreign Key in an entity is the reference to the PK of another entity. In the Entity-Relationship Diagrams that attribute will be demonstrated with Foreign Key behind its name.

7. What is Database Design Attribute’s Data Type

There are various data types. A couple is normalized, but numerous database design has its types that all have their points of interest. 

The standard data types that each data set knows, and are generally utilized, are:

  • Text:
  2. CHAR
  3. TEXT
  • Numbers:
  1. INT
  • Other types:
  1. BLOB
  2. INET
  • Types of Databases are:
  1. Graph Database
  2. Object-Oriented Database
  3. Cloud Database
  4. Relational Database
  5. Operational Database
  6. NoSQL Database
  7. Commercial Database
  8. End-User Database
  9. Personal Database
  10. Distributed Database
  11. Centralised Database

8. Normalization

Normalization makes your database model reliable and flexible. It creates some overhead since you generally get more tables, yet it empowers you to do numerous things with your database model without changing it.


What is database design? We have now covered everything related to database design. The relationship in a DBMS is the most fundamental piece of its working. Without appropriate connections, the whole data set design would get pointless. We additionally need to remember that however, it is fundamental to make connections that may appear to be mind-boggling now and again, it needs to thought after and all around characterized for a positive result.

The fundamental goals of database design are to create physical and logical plans models of the proposed data set framework.

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