JavaFX Tutorial: A Step-By-Step Guide In 2021


The JavaFX platform is a Java framework for developing rich internet applications (RIAs) that can operate on a wide range of platforms. It’s designed to take the place of Swing as a graphical user interface platform in Java applications. In addition, it has more features than Swing. 

  1. What is JavaFX?
  2. Web and Media Engine
  3. Anatomy of a JavaFX Application
  4. Creating a JavaFX Application

1. What is JavaFX?

JavaFX is the Java Platform’s next-generation GUI toolkit. Isn’t it intriguing? Let’s take a closer look at the idea in this JavaFX tutorial.

  • JavaFX Architecture

JavaFX comes with a number of built-in modules that are all linked together. Following are the elements involved.

  • Scene Graph

The Scene Graph is the first step in creating a JavaFX application. It’s a node-based hierarchical tree that represents all of the visual elements of the app’s user interface. A node is a single entity in a scene graph.

  • Graphics Engine

The scene graph aspect receives graphics support from the JavaFX framework. It commonly supports both 2D and 3D graphics. When the graphics hardware on the device is unable to accommodate hardware-accelerated rendering, software rendering is used.

In JavaFX, there are two graphics-accelerated pipelines:

  • Prism
  • Quantum Toolkit
  • Glass Windowing Toolkit

It’s a platform-specific layer that links the JavaFX platform to the native OS.

2. Web and Media Engine

Web Engine – It’s a web browser that embeds HTML content into a JavaFX scene graph. DOM, CSS, HTML5, JavaScript, and SVG are all supported.

Media Engine – It provides tools for creating media applications that allow media playback on compatible platforms in a desktop window or within a web page.

The JavaFX API is supported by these components. The structure of a JavaFX application is the subject of the next section of this JavaFX tutorial.

3. Anatomy of a JavaFX Application

The Stage, Scene, and Nodes components of a JavaFX application are organized hierarchically.

  • Stage

It is the application’s key container and entry point. The location of a stage is determined by two parameters: width and height.

  • Scene

The scene is a container for the stage’s visual material. It contains user interface elements including Image Buttons, Views, Grids, and TextBoxes. Javafx.scene is a visual effects library for Java. The javafx.scene package’s Scene class contains all of the methods for dealing with scene objects.

  • Scene Nodes & Graph

A scene graph is a hierarchical (tree-like) data structure that represents the contents of a scene. It can be thought of as a list of different nodes. A node is essentially a visual/graphical entity in a scene graph. 

Let’s learn how to build a JavaFX application with an example in this JavaFX tutorial.

4. Creating a JavaFX Application

Let’s take a look at how to program in JavaFX using the Eclipse IDE. When the button on the stage is pressed, we’ll make a quick JavaFX application that prints “Welcome to Jigsaw!” on the console.

  • JavaFX Application Example Program Explanation

Let’s take a look at how this sample software works in detail in this JavaFX tutorial.

Step1: Extend the javafx.application package. Override the start() method in the application

As previously mentioned, the start() method is where a JavaFX application begins. JavaFX.application should be imported. Override the start() method for this application. Override the start() method and add an object of the javafx.stage class to it. 

12@Overridepublic void start(Stage primaryStage)

Step 2: Create a Button

The javafx.scene.control.Button class is used to make a button. As a result, code the appropriate class.

1Button btn = new Button();

Step 3: Create an event for the button

Call setOnAction() on the button to accomplish this, and pass an anonymous class Event Handler as a parameter to the process. Define a method handle within this anonymous class (). Take a look at the handle() method’s code.

1234567btn.setText(“Say ‘Welcome to Jigsaw!'”);btn.setOnAction(new EventHandler<ActionEvent>() {
@Overridepublic void handle(ActionEvent event) {System.out.println(“Welcome to Jigsaw!”);}

Step 4: Make a layout and add the button in it.

JavaFX typically comes with a variety of formats. One of them should be used to better visualize the widgets. Other nodes, such as buttons, messages, and so on, must be added to this layout.

12StackPane root = new StackPane();root.getChildren().add(btn);

Step 5: Create the scene

In the hierarchy of JavaFx framework structure, the scene is at a higher level. You can make it by using the javafx.scene class. Create a scene class and transfer the layout object to the constructor.

1Scene scene = new Scene(root, 300, 250);

Step 6: Prepare the stage

Make use of the javafx.stage methods. To set some stage attributes, use the Stage class. To view the point, use the show() process. Here’s the code for it.

123primaryStage.setTitle(“Hello World!”);primaryStage.setScene(scene);;

Step 7: Create the main method

Develop a main method that will be used to launch the program, i.e. call launch() and transfer the command line arguments (args) to it..

123public static void main(String[] args) {launch(args);}

Step 8: Run the application.

To make it more fun, you can add a custom template to the JavaFX application’s UI, such as HTML and CSS.


This concludes our JavaFX Tutorial. We went through the internal structure of the JavaFX application and learned the key capabilities of its lifecycle, architecture, and components in this JavaFX Tutorial.

If you want to learn more about Java then check out Jigsaw Academy’s Master Certificate In Full Stack Development – a 170 hour-long live online course. It is the first & only program on Full Stack Development with Automation and AWS Cloud. Happy learning!


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