Important Introduction To Data Augmentation For Deep Learning (2021)

Ajay Ohri


Having a huge dataset is critical for the presentation of the deep learning model. Notwithstanding, we can improve the presentation of the model by data augmentation we, as of now, have. Deep learning structures generally have underlying data growth utilities. However, those can be lacking or inefficient some necessary usefulness. 

Data augmentation in data analysis are procedures utilised to expand the measure of data by adding somewhat revised copies of previously existing data or recently made synthetic data from existing data. It goes about as a regulariser and lessens overfitting when training an ML or Machine Learning model.

  1. Numerical Data Augmentation
  2. Image Augmentation
  3. Adversarial Training based Augmentation
  4. GAN based Augmentation
  5. Neural Style Transfer based Augmentation
  6. Text Augmentation Techniques

1. Numerical Data Augmentation

The data augmentation techniques for numerical data utilized in Deep Learning or DL applications depend upon the sort of information. To extend plain mathematical data, procedures, for instance, SMOTE NC or SMOTE, are notable. These strategies are mainly utilized to address the class unevenness issue in classification assignments. 

For unstructured information like text and images, the data augmentation techniques separate from fundamental changes to a neural network produced information, given the multifaceted design of the application.

2. Image Augmentation

Among the famous Deep Learning or DL applications, computer vision tasks, for example, segmentation, contend detection, and image classification, has been exceptionally fruitful. Data augmentation can be successfully utilized to prepare Deep Learning or DL models in such applications. Basic data augmentation techniques are:

  1. Changing brightness or contrast
  2. Zoom in, Zoom out
  3. Cropping
  4. Shearing
  5. Rotation
  6. Flipping

A portion of the well-known open-source python packages utilized for data augmentation images are:

  1. Skimage
  2. OpenCV
  3. Keras ImageDataGenerator
  4. Albumentations

Deep Neural Network or DNN based techniques, for example, Neural Style Transfer, GAN or Generative Adversarial Networks, and Adversarial Training, are being utilized and researched to apply more sensible changes.

Image Data Augmentation Keras is supported in the deep learning library through the ImageDataGenerator class.

When utilizing Data Augmentation PyTorch you can easily move from torchvision to Albumentations, since this package furnishes specific utilities to use with PyTorch. Moving to Albumentations assists with accelerating the data age part and train deep learning models quicker.

3. Adversarial Training based Augmentation

In Adversarial training, the goal is to change the pictures to deceive the Deep Learning or DL model to the degree that the model neglects to effectively examine it. Such changed pictures can be utilized as training data to make up for the shortcomings in the Deep Learning or DL model. In basic terms, the technique figures out how to produce masks which, when applied to the input picture, created diverse expanded pictures.

4. GAN based Augmentation

This is utilized to incorporate images/pictures for data augmentation. It comprises two all while trained neural networks: the discriminator and the generator. 

  1. Discriminator: The objective of the discriminator is to recognize the synthetic fake images/pictures from actual images.
  2. Generator: The objective of the generator is to produce fake images/pictures from the inactive space.

5. Neural Style Transfer based Augmentation

In the Neural style transfer, Deep Neural Networks or DNN are trained to remove the substance from one images/pictures and style from other images/pictures and create the expanded image/picture utilizing the extricated style and content. The expanded image/picture is changed to resemble the data image/picture, yet “painted” in the style of the style image/picture.

Transformations can be applied in ‘online’ or the ‘offline’ modes relying upon the size of the training data.

  1. Online mode: In the online mode, the changes are applied on the fly, and the mini-batch is set up to prepare the model.
  2. Offline mode: In the offline mode, the changed image records are put away and taken care of by the model during training.

6. Text Augmentation Techniques

While the utilization of data augmentation in computer vision applications is famous and normalized, the data augmentation techniques in Natural Language Processing applications are as yet in the exploratory stage. This is generally because of the intricacy engaged with language handling. A portion of the right now well-known methods are talked about, and the connects to executions are given.

A well-known data augmentation technique in Natural Language Processing alluded to as non-conditional augmentation is word substitution. In this method, the equivalents of words or expressions in a sentence are replaced and found. The issue related to this methodology is that not all the words have equivalents, and now and then, substitution by equivalent words could prompt entirely unexpected implications. 

A portion of the other data augmentation techniques that are successfully utilized for text classification objects are:

  1. Random deletion
  2. Random swap
  3. Random Insertion


Data structure augmentation is the way toward taking a current data structure and redoing it a smidgen to meet your requirements. This allows you to exploit a sharp stock data structure that nearly. However, not exactly, tackles your concern and add that final detail that causes it to get the job done.

Creating successful data augmentation needs exhaustive exploration of creativity, domain knowledge, and problem.

There are no right or wrong ways of learning AI and ML technologies – the more, the better! These valuable resources can be the starting point for your journey on how to learn Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning. Do pursuing AI and ML interest you? If you want to step into the world of emerging tech, you can accelerate your career with this Machine Learning And AI Courses by Jigsaw Academy.



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