Multitenancy In Cloud Computing, Definition, Examples

If multitenancy is quite new to you, this blog is for you! A beginner-friendly and concise guide to cloud computing via multitenancy.

Introduction To Multitenancy In Cloud Computing

Multiple tenants are included in multitenancy, and a collection of personnel, assets, or applications is referred to here. The multi-tenant service design has been developed to allow numerous consumers to connect the same mechanism at once. Thanks to this security measure, tenants are prevented from accessing material and administrative details that are not their own. A physical or digital service that supports multitenancy serves a software intended to be used by several distinct users. The software used by numerous users simultaneously but that none of them is conscious of is an instance of multitenancy.

Multitenancy in cloud computing

With tailored customisations for the various client bases, a Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) supplier can operate numerous program versions and offer online access to many consumers. Because each tenant’s information is hidden from other tenants, such a setup enables data separation.

Software multitenancy refers to a system design where a single example of a program operates on a host and provides services to several tenants. A logical prototype or examples are produced and run on top of the main program in this cloud computing infrastructure. New service patterns that benefit from virtualisation and remote monitoring have been expanded. Because cloud computing uses a pay-per-use model, multitenancy lowers the upfront setup costs.

The definition of multitenancy

A unique occurrence of the program is used to serve several tenants or users in a computer multitenancy structure. Thanks to the multi-tenant design, every tenant has a specific portion of the example, encompassing settings and data. Tenants are often distinct consumers of MSSPs. With multi-tenancy, MSSPs may control and keep an eye on numerous security solutions for various clients from a single location. Multitenancy allows MSSPs to centrally manage everything, increasing scalability, lowering costs, and boosting security.

Multitenancy Examples

Most people today have a personal checking account with a particular bank. You could handle the money in the account, including paying bills, transferring money to certain other accounts, and checking your account, but you cannot access any accounts of other clients.

Netflix is another instance of multitenancy. As a streaming platform, it allows you to sign up for an account and take pleasure in watching a variety of films or television shows without interfering with other users’ time or genre choices.

Users in both cases can utilise the same assets and are aware that several other users are using the same services, which they cannot view or control.

Like Gmail, Microsoft Office, and Zoom, many additional SaaS services are cloud-based and cater to large user bases.

Multitenancy characteristics

The tracking techniques describe multitenancy:

Usage solitude:

The functionality of other tenants is unaffected by the use of one application.

Data security: 

Tenants are unable to view each other’s tenants’ data.

In the event of data loss, every tenant has a current backup of their data.

Upgrades to the application are required so issues and new features may be included as part of new versions.


The potential to grow in size facilitates a greater number of tenants. Supplying extra capacity aids in boosting consumption.

Dispensing usage: 

It offers a pay-per-use system to the renters.

Data-tier solitude: 

Each tenant has its segregated databases, tables, and schemas.

Methods for multitenancy types

It depends on the kind of information held on the architecture of the application developers outside of the company network. There are various types of Saas solutions which the customers can obtain using online services, from small internet-based applications to very large software packages with very high-security prerequisites. Two categories of multitenancy techniques exist:

Multiple virtual tenants: 

Multiple people share this processing and storage capability. Virtual machines that operate concurrently on top of the same processing and storage tools accommodate several tenants.

Multi-tenancy organically: 

Each element, including the hardware and software used across the network infrastructure, is controlled by different tenants in organic multi-tenancy. Three distinct rates of customer engagement are used to establish Internet multi-tenancy concepts:

As follows:

  • Application layer 
  • Infrastructure layer 
  • Data centre layer

The most recent improvements to the cloud computing paradigm are the engineering solutions and application-level customer interaction layers. This integration is utilised to save costs and construct scalability SaaS services by sacrificing safety and client separation criteria.

Data centre layer:

A layer of the data centre, If properly deployed, offers the greatest security needs, including specified secure access to a geographical place of the equipment supplying the SaaS, firewall and access restrictions to fulfil customer requirements and other security measures. The majority of the time, data centre layer multitenancy serves as a service provider, renting cages to businesses that house their equipment, networking, and application in the same structure.

Infrastructure layer: 

Technology packages with several tenants are offered at the network level. Each client or renter receives its unique software. Since stack layers are built based on real customer accounts, this arrangement is less expensive than data centre-layer multi-tenancy. This level demonstrates the high accessibility of software and hardware components. In this situation, you can increase hardware needs by actual service usage.

Application layer:

Architecture implementation at the equipment and application layers is needed for application-layer multi-tenancy. The software configuration design must be changed to accommodate multi-tenant behaviours at the application level. For instance, security is compromised when multi-tenant applications need to retrieve and store information from many user profiles via processing techniques and data structures. However, the advantage is cost savings if done correctly.

Technology services offer a software delivery approach to deploy software-based solutions to give consumers remote access. The offering of Saas solutions to several tenants simultaneously as a standalone executable instance on top of public architecture is a crucial component of public cloud, private cloud, or virtual private cloud, based multitenancy.

Virtualisation versus multitenancy

Virtualisation and multi-tenancy are commonly confused. The program is intended to be used by several people, but multitenancy enables storage on a real or virtual cloud. The software seems to be personal to each user. Unlike virtualisation, a single dedicated server hosts multiple virtual replicas of the hosting environment.

What distinguishes single-tenant from multi-tenant housing?

A formal organisation is typically supported by a single example of a single program. Each institution’s server and databases are maintained in seclusion with a unique tenancy. Because of the aforementioned possible limitations, MSSPs that run programs that only allow single tenancy place themselves in an undesirable situation:

Installation and administration: MSSPs must install a separate instance for each new client when using a single tenancy. Flexibility is decreased by the difficulty of sharing configuration and statistics across end-users.

Cost: Running solitary installations for each client requires more money from MSSPs than pooling resources. Setting up and maintaining numerous single-tenant installations takes extra work.

Maintenance: As the client base expands, the amount of work required to maintain single-tenant installations rises, necessitating additional time from the MSSP.

Contrarily, multitenancy makes usage of a single software version across several businesses. Hosting companies, MSSPs, and security operation centres (SOCs) may now handle large-scale installations more easily and affordably.

Several-Tenant Databases

The database is a different story. In a multi-tenant system, there are three approaches to architect a dataset.

A Single, Shared Database Schema A architecture is a set of connected MySQL database layouts. In the first method, a single database is utilised, and all tenant tables are connected to it. The tables deal with relationships, version control, and changes, including addressing situations when two persons are trying to edit the very same column or enter data. Given that just one database is being utilised, provided it is scalable, this method of operation is the quickest.

Multiple Schemas, One Database It’s common practice to create sub-databases within a centralised database using several schemas, which allows you to organise your information without trying to invent additional databases. When separate data has various laws, such as foreign data, each schema is independent of the others and functions uniquely.

Since this information is now present in various systems, several databases advance the multi-schema strategy. Regions can be used, for instance, to segment sales or consumers. The benefit is that you receive the finest possible data separation. It increases the difficulty of administration, upkeep, and flexibility using several databases.

The principal benefits of a multi-tenant design for SaaS applications

1. Greatly contributes to reducing investment costs

Due to inter design, which greatly aids in lowering the cost of investing over time, today, every customer is seeking the greatest deal and cheap cost of development whenever it comes to creating a SaaS service.

Additionally, it triumphs over solitary structure, which contrasts being more costly. Clients that utilise multi-tenant may access information, services, and programs, which is the key reason for this.

The expense of establishing and improving decreases for all clients since everyone uses the very same program and databases. The notion that multi-tenant systems don’t need new software assets or code modifications and don’t set databases for every additional tenant is a crucial element contributing to cost savings. At maximum size, the price of enrolling a tenant is often nil, and the cost of each additional renter is only marginally higher.

2. It is simple to add a new client

But doing so has traditionally been difficult for software sellers since a poor onboarding experience can negatively affect future business. As a result, you must employ the appropriate strategy to win over customers, and in this instance, the self-sign-up procedure is crucial.

Due to its automatic enrollment procedure, multi-tenant software will benefit suppliers. Additionally, mechanised are the specified domain and the sub-domain, and providing return and installing the program are two more automatic activities.

3. Maintaining the same app is more practical

Multi-tenant architecture of an application is created in a way that makes it easier for suppliers to manage the service. The components are convenient to use and have a simple configuration process. Since common symbols are widely used, you don’t need to alter the symbols or the information structures.

When an upgrade is required, the maintenance costs are also reduced because it is primarily shared by the renters. This occurs because the common code is followed by all renters.

4. Making the most of resource use

The capacity to maximise resource use is a prominent characteristic in favour of multi-tenant systems; this is just another place wherein multi-tenant outperforms single-tenant. Multi-tenants have an advantage when it comes to maximising upkeep while automating use due to the possibility of using that resources and infrastructure. Additionally, if a client or tenant is not using a service, another consumer or tenant may use it. The device is always in motion.

5. Having several renters at once

The provider does not need to create a brand-new, unique database for every prospective lease in a multi-tenant design. With solitary, nevertheless, it is necessary. Tenants can utilise a single tenant’s shared equipment thanks to the multi-tenant design. Data centres do not require an increase for any one customer. Scaling lessens vendor concerns, although it will rely on the scope of the network and the size of an application.

Multi-tenant design potential threats

Although resource sharing is what made multi-tenancy so appealing, it may also be a reason for concern. Cloud security is hardly really a new problem.

Data corruption – Multi-tenant customers, are practically interconnected, even if they are virtually segregated from one another. Although uncommon, damaged data through one tenancy may spread to everyone if a cloud vendor‘s architecture is not properly set up.

Co-tenant and outside assaultsMulti-tenant architecture is a prominent target of attacks since it lacks data segregation. These assaults might be carried out by a tenant with bad intentions, possibly a rival tenant versus fellow renters, or by an outside source. Side-channel attacks, which rely on data gathered via bandwidth tracking or other approaches, typically occur as a result of a lack of permission restrictions for sharing material assets.

Tenant Workflow Disruption – If one renter causes an overflow, it may affect how well other tenants handle their workloads.

Inadequately Assigned Services – If a virtualisation level is hacked, any virtual servers operating on the same host machine can be accessed, which might allow a hostile user to modify the virtual machine’s settings. Loss of monitoring capability can follow from that.


Cloud computing enables multi-tenancy for best resource utilisation using hardware and software components across several clients. Both technologies are now launched using multi-tenancy techniques, which are utilised in most industrial applications. One of the primary security and privacy features of cloud computing is multi-tenancy. This post discussed the various forms of multitenancy, their implementation, benefits, and drawbacks within particular cloud-based application services, including SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS.

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