What are the IT fundamentals for Cyber Security?



Learning IT fundamentals for Cyber Security is a must in present times. Rampant cyber attacks due to mass-scale digitization of business are a major nuisance, and Cyber Security awareness is the only solution. 


A cyber-attack is an offensive action targeting computer networks or devices. A cyber-attack can be carried out by individuals, groups, or even nation-states and can range from relatively unsophisticated attacks to highly sophisticated operations that can cause extensive damage.  

Cyber-attacks are becoming increasingly common, and the costs of these attacks are also rising. According to Cyber Security Ventures, global cybercrime costs are to grow by 15 percent per year over the next five years, reaching $10.5 trillion USD annually by 2025, up from $3 trillion USD in 2015. In 2018, several high-profile cyber-attacks caused significant damage. The Winery ransomware attack affected over 200,000 organizations in 150 countries, and the NotPetya attack caused an estimated $10 billion in damage. 


These attacks underline the need for organizations to take Cyber Security seriously. However, many organizations are still not doing enough to protect themselves. A study by Deloitte found that only 38% of organizations have a formal Cyber Security strategy in place. 


The need for Cyber Security is evident on both an organizational and personal level. Organizations need to protect their networks and data from attack, and individuals need to protect their personal information and online activity from being compromised. Several motivations for carrying out a cyber-attack include financial gain, political or ideological objectives, or simply the desire to cause disruption. Whatever the motive, the impact of a successful attack can be significant and include loss of data, financial damage, and reputational damage.  


Organizations need to take steps to protect themselves from cyber-attacks, including having robust security systems and procedures in place. Individuals also need to be aware of the risks and take steps to protect themselves, such as using strong passwords and being cautious about what information they share online.  


Why do we need Cyber Security?  

There are several threats individuals and organizations face if there is no proper security. These can include:  

  • Identity Theft is a serious threat to both individuals and organizations. If someone’s personal information is stolen, it can be used to commit fraud or other crimes. This can lead to financial loss and damage to one’s reputation. 
  • Hacking is another serious threat. Hackers accessing an organization’s systems can disrupt operations or steal sensitive information. This can cause significant financial damage or reputation. 
  • Phishing is another type of attack that can be used to steal personal information or financial login credentials. This can lead to loss of money or personal information.  
  • Malware is another type of threat that can damage computers and data. If malware is installed on a system, it can delete files, steal information, or cause other damage. 
  • Spam is a type of threat that can clog up email inboxes and systems, making it difficult to communicate or work effectively. This can lead to lost productivity and increased costs. 
  • Increased Costs: Without proper security in place, organizations may find that they incur increased costs. This can be due to the need to purchase new security software or hardware or to the cost of hiring new staff to manage security.  
  • Security breaches: If an organization’s security is breached, this can lead to serious consequences. This can include the loss of sensitive information, damage to the organization’s reputation, or financial losses.  


Each of these threats can cause serious ethical and financial damage to individuals and organizations. Identity theft can lead to financial loss and damage to one’s reputation, while hacking can lead to the loss of sensitive information or the disruption of critical systems. Phishing can result in the theft of personal information or financial loss, while malware can cause damage to computers and data. Finally, spam can clog up email inboxes and systems, making communicating or working effectively difficult.  


Cyber Security is the practice of protecting computer systems from theft or damage. This includes protecting data from unauthorized access or from being lost or destroyed. Cyber Security is important for individuals and organizations as it can help protect against identity theft, hacking, phishing, and other types of attacks. Cyber Security must constantly evolve to keep up with new threats.  


IT Fundamentals for Cyber Security Specialization 


  • Network Security & Database Vulnerabilities:  

Network security is the process of protecting a computer network from unauthorized access or misuse. It includes hardware and software technologies that protect data, applications, and services from threats such as cyber-attacks. Database vulnerabilities are weaknesses that attackers can exploit to gain access to sensitive data or disrupt the normal operation of a database. Common database vulnerabilities include SQL injection flaws, cross-site scripting, and privilege escalation flaws. 


  • Cyber Security Roles, Processes, and Operating System Security:  

Cyber Security roles are the various positions that are responsible for the security of an organization’s information systems. Common Cyber Security roles include security analyst, security engineer, and security administrator. Cyber Security processes are the procedures and policies that are used to protect information systems from threats. These include risk assessment, security testing, and incident response. Operating system security is the process of securing an operating system from unauthorized access or misuse. Common security measures include file permissions, user accounts, and security patches.  


  • Introduction to Cyber Security Tools and Cyber Attacks:  

Cyber Security tools are software or hardware that is used to protect information systems from threats. Common Cyber Security tools include firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and antivirus software. Cyber attacks are deliberate attempts to disrupt, damage, or gain unauthorized access to information systems. Common types of cyber attacks include denial of service attacks, malware attacks, and phishing attacks. 


  • IT Fundamentals Cyber Security Compliance Framework & System Administration:  

The IT fundamentals Cyber Security compliance framework is a set of guidelines that organizations can use to ensure that their information systems are secure. The framework includes security policies, risk management, and incident response guidelines. System administration is the process of managing and configuring computer systems. The common system administration tasks include installing software, backing up data, and creating user accounts.  


  • Security Precautions to Follow in the Workplace  

Cyber Security is an important issue for businesses of all sizes. In today’s interconnected world, ensuring that your data is secure is more important than ever. You can take many steps to improve your Cyber Security and protect your data. 


  • Always use strong passwords and never reuse passwords across different accounts:  

One of the most important things you can do to protect your online accounts is to use strong, unique passwords for each one. A strong password is typically at least eight characters long and includes a mix of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and symbols. It should also be something you can remember easily without writing down. Reusing passwords across different accounts is one of the biggest security risks you can take. If one of your accounts is compromised, all of your other accounts that use the same password are also at risk. This is why using unique passwords for each online account is so important.  


  • Use two-factor authentication whenever possible:  

Two-factor authentication (2FA) is an additional layer of security that can be used to protect your online accounts. With 2FA enabled, you’ll need to provide your password and the second piece of information before you can log in. This second factor can be something like a code sent to your phone or generated by an app on your phone. While 2FA isn’t perfect, it’s a much stronger security measure than just using a password alone. Any online account that offers 2FA should be enabled, if possible. 


  • Be careful what information you share online and on social media:  

Sharing too much information online can put you at risk of identity theft or other scams. Be careful about what personal information you share on social media or in other online forums. This includes your full name, address, date of birth, and interests and hobbies. If you’re not careful about what you share online, you could make it easier for someone to steal your identity or commit fraud in your name.  


  • Keep your computer and software up to date with the latest security patches:  

One of the best things you can do to keep your computer secure is to ensure that your operating system and all your software are up to date with the latest security patches. Software developers regularly release these patches to fix newly discovered security vulnerabilities. If you don’t keep your software up to date, you could be leaving your computer vulnerable to attack. Many viruses and other malware are designed to exploit known security vulnerabilities to infect your computer. 


  • Use a reputable antivirus and anti-malware program and scan your computer regularly:  

Installing and using a reputable antivirus and anti-malware program is one of the best things you can do to protect your computer from viruses, malware, and other security threats. These programs can detect and remove malicious software from your computer, helping to keep it safe. It’s important to note that no security program is perfect, and even the best can miss things. This is why it’s important to scan your computer regularly for viruses and malware, even if a security program is installed. 


  • Do not click on links or open attachments from unknown or suspicious sources:  

One of the most common ways viruses and other malware are spread is via email attachments or links in email messages. Many people unwittingly click on these links or open these attachments, infecting their computers with malware. It’s essential to be careful about what links you click on and what attachments you open. If you’re not sure about the source of the email or the link, it’s best not to click on it or open it.  


  • Do not respond to email requests for personal or financial information:  

Another common way that scammers try to get your personal or financial information is by email. They may pose as a legitimate company and try to get you to provide information like your credit card number or Social Security number. It’s important to remember that legitimate companies will never request this type of information via email. If you receive an email asking for personal or financial information, do not respond. 


  • Be aware of phishing scams and do not provide personal or financial information in response to unsolicited emails or requests:  

Phishing is a type of scam where criminals send emails or other messages that appear to be from a legitimate company in an attempt to get you to provide personal or financial information. For example, they may pose as your bank and try to get you to provide your bank account number or login information. It’s important to be aware of phishing scams and to never provide personal or financial information in response to unsolicited emails or other requests. If you’re not sure about the legitimacy of an email or request, you can always contact the company directly to verify.  


  • Report any suspicious activity or emails to your IT department or security team:  

If you receive an email or see something online that looks suspicious, don’t hesitate to report it to your IT department or security team. They’ll be able to investigate and take appropriate action if necessary.  


  • Follow your company’s security policies and procedures:  

Most companies have security policies and procedures in place to help protect their data and assets. It’s important to familiarize yourself with these policies and procedures and to follow them. Some of the things that may be covered in your company’s security policies include the use of strong passwords, the need to keep software up to date, and the importance of not sharing personal or financial information online.  


By following the tips in this article, you can help to keep your data safe and secure. Cyber Security is an important issue for businesses of all sizes. In today’s interconnected world, ensuring that your data is secure is more important than ever. You can take many steps to improve your Cyber Security and protect your data.  


Cyber Security is critical for businesses and organizations of all sizes. The costs of a data breach can be high, and reputational damage is severe. Cyber Security can help protect against data breaches, protect sensitive data, and reduce the risk of cyberattacks. It can also help businesses to comply with data protection regulations. Cyber Security is a growing field, and there is a demand for skilled professionals. Jobs in Cyber Security can be challenging and rewarding. They can offer a good salary, flexible working hours, and the opportunity to work with cutting-edge technology. There are many opportunities for career progression, and you can often work from home.  

UNext Jigsaw offers a PG certificate program in Cyber Security which can help you to develop the skills and knowledge you need to pursue a career in Cyber Security. Our courses are designed by industry experts and are updated regularly to keep up with the latest trends and technologies. We also offer a range of support services to help you to succeed in your studies.  

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