Fog Computing Architecture: An Easy Guide for 2021


Over the years, businesses have realized that data computing architectural models are key for optimal business success. Owing to the pandemic, the demand for professionals skilled in Data Computing Architectures has increased dramatically. Hence, creating a golden opportunity for the rise of Fog Computing Architecture. According to PR News Wire, the Fog Computing market is set to reach USD 539.8 Million by the year 2026. This clearly shows the tremendous growth opportunities that this domain has to offer.

So what is Fog Computing Architecture? The Fog Network is the bridge between the data collected from sources and the cloud. This computing that provides real-time interactions is a distributed network environment that is closely related to the Internet of Things (IoT). The ‘Fog Architecture’ owes its rise in demand to the need for distributed data storage facilities. As this could not be performed by Cloud Computing, an alternative,i.e, Fog Computing Architecture is used.

The Fog Network is commonly known as a decentralized and flexible computing structure as it provides ample resources and the data associated with it to enhance its performance and provide efficient results to the cloud. Fogging allows decision-making and computing through IoT devices and ensures only relevant data is sent to the cloud. 

In this article, you will learn more about fog computing and the ecosystem of Fog Computing Architecture.

Here are the key pointers this article will cover

  1. Fog Computing Architecture
  2. Hierarchical Architecture Model
  3. Layered Architecture Model

1. Fog Computing Architecture

Let us learn more about how Fog Computing Architecture really helps with transmitting data to the Cloud. The Fog Network is an extension of cloud computing that installs data storage, computing, and communications tools for monitoring and maintenance closer to the endpoints of the network. It is particularly important for the functionality of the Internet of Things (IoT), as low response time and low cost are required. Fog networks offer a distributed and systemic computing system that transfers and analyses the data received from its resources.

Digging in deeper on what Fog Computing Architecture comprises, you will learn that it consists vastly of the physical and logical elements of the network, including the hardware and software. This establishes a large number of interconnecting devices.  Fog Computing Architecture contains multiple layers. These layers consist of many networking devices such as routers, set‐top boxes, proxy servers, base stations, etc. These levels are assigned various tasks to be conducted on the given data. Fog Computing Architecture is implemented in two predominant models the Hierarchical Architecture Model and the Layered Architecture Model. Let us learn more about these models

2. Hierarchical Architecture Model

This model of cloud computing uses the fundamental three-layer structure in a hierarchical form of architecture. The three layers comprise of:

1) Terminal Layer

  • The terminal layer is the fundamental layer in the fog design, which comprises devices such as cell phones, cameras, smart cars, readers, smart cards, etc.
  • The sensors in this layer can detect and collect data that is present in the network. Devices are distributed widely away from each other over a range of locations.
  • The layer deals more with sensing and collecting data. In this segment, devices from various platforms and various architectures are primarily found.
  • Applications have the potential to run in a heterogeneous environment, with other devices utilizing distinct technologies and different communication modes.

2) Fog Layer

  • The Fog layer contains equipment called Fog nodes, such as routers, gateways, entry points, base stations, individual fog servers, etc.
  • The fog nodes are placed at the edge of a network. An edge may be a hop away from the end of the unit. These nodes are located between Cloud Data Centers and End Devices.
  • Fog nodes can be static, such as those in a bus terminal or coffee shop, or they can be shifted, such as those inside a moving car.
  • These nodes supply the end devices with facilities. It can also temporarily compute, transmit and store the data.

3) Cloud Layer

  • This layer consists of computers that can provide high performance with massive storage and machines (servers).
  • The cloud layer conducts the study of computations and permanently saves data for backup and remains persistent user control
  • It has a high capacity for storage and efficient computation.
  • A cloud layer is created by enormous data centers with high processing ability. These data centers provide customers with all the fundamental features of cloud computing. The data centers are both flexible and have on-demand computing services.

3. Layered Architecture Model

This model of the architecture of Fog computing consists of six concise layers –

  • Physical and Virtualisation layer – The first stage consists of physical and virtual nodes as well as sensors. These sensors are distributed geographically to sense the environment and retrieve data.
  • Monitoring Layer – In this layer, the then received nodes and sensors will be monitored thoroughly. At what time and where the fog node performed the tasks will be observed. Another key feature that will be monitored is the energy consumption of the nodes. 
  • Pre-processing Layer– This layer collects, analyzes, and trims data to get meaningful insights. After which the data is stored securely. 
  • Temporary storage Layer – This is where the pre-processed data will be stored. Here performance-elevating activities such as data distribution, replication, deduplication, and virtualization of storage spaces are performed. 
  • Security Layer – In this segment, the data received is sent for processing, encryption, and decryption. It also ensures privacy and integrity measures are followed religiously. This layer also makes certain that the data isn’t tampered with. 
  • Transport layer – When the final layer receives the information its main objective is to upload pre-processed and secure data to the cloud.

The final stage of the layered Fog Computing Architecture sends the data to the cloud which is then stored and used to create services for users.

Fog Computing has gradually yet efficiently taken over data adaptations of devices. Here are some of the advantages of this form of Computing- 

  • Enhanced user experience – As data is analyzed locally and then transmitted to the cloud there are fewer technical errors and provides instant responses. Which will in turn increase the satisfaction amongst users.
  • No bandwidth issues –  Instead of providing large sums of unfiltered data, this computing architectural method transmits only accurate and necessary data to the cloud source.
  • Improved response time – Real-time applications will benefit largely from live and instant responses. This is because the Fog Nodes are placed remotely around the data source and also because there are minimal shutdowns and system failures in the network. 
  • Security and Data Privacy – Fog Computing handles the data processed in the network with the ultimate security features and also ensures all sensitive data is withheld and processed locally. This ensures that no data is tampered with or misused. This is done by protecting the Fog Nodes through policies and controls established amongst the network.


According to a Market Research Report by IndustryARC, the growth of Fog Computing is estimated to increase by the Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 55% in the next four years.    The demand for computing services is going to increase especially in sectors of smart homes and smart manufacturing. This is due to the increase in demand for low latency, smart grids, and IoT technology. 

It is quite evident that the scope and deliverables of this extension of Cloud Computing are vast and being certified in the same course can bring you great opportunities. If you are looking for an extensive course in Cloud Computing, then the 5.5-month online Postgraduate Certificate Program In Cloud Computing offered by Jigsaw Academy can be of help. This program helps interested learners become complete Cloud professionals to stay relevant and up to date with the current market trends. 


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